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Various types of electromagnetic pumps (EMP) have been designed and manufactured in NIIEFA to pump liquid metals (sodium, potassium, lithium, etc.) with the flow rate of 1 l/s to 4000 m3/h at the pressure of 0.15 to 2 MPa. Various types of MHD throttles to control flow rate of liquid metal and other electrically conducting flows were designed and manufactured. This equipment efficiency varies from several liters per second to tens of thousand of cubic meters per hour at 0.01-5 MPa operating pressure. The liquid metal temperature is 20 to 550oC. The EMP and MHD throttles are used in nuclear energetics, metallurgy, chemical industry, in energy conversion systems of space air crafts. NIIEFA is equipped with the test facilities for EMP and MHD throttles testing and for studying MHD flows and heat exchanging of liquid metal systems of the ITER test fusion reactor. The facilities are having eight 0.01-0.5 m3 liquid metal loops made of stainless steel and filled with sodium or sodium with potassium alloy at up to 600oC. Accumulating tanks for sodium and sodium plus potassium alloy are 2 m3 and 1.2 m3 respectively.

Stand for liquid metal systems study. Pump CLIN-3/3500. Throttle MDC-4/230.
Stand for liquid metal systems study. Pump CLIN-3/3500. Throttle MDC-4/230.

Magnetohydrodynamic valves

Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) d.c. valves with cylindrical and helical channels are intended to control flow rate of liquid metals from thousand fractions to tens of thousands of cubic meters per hour at a pressure of 0.01-5.0 MPa.

HD valves are the novel type of the MHD machines offering essential advantages over the known mechanical control valves:

  • hydraulic resistance coefficient in the valve is less by a factor of 10-20 than that of a mechanical valve;
  • high stability of characteristics and fast response;
  • continuous remote and precision control over flow rate


  • in liquid-metal loops of nuclear power plants with fast neutron reactors;
  • in chemical industry;
  • in metallurgy;
  • in various technological and experimental facilities.

HD valve of -3/30 type. HD valve of -3/20 type.
HD valve of -3/30 type. HD valve of -3/20 type.

Main technical characteristicsNumerical values Numerical values Numerical values Numerical values Numerical values Numerical values
Characteristics: MHD-3/20 MHD-5/8 MHD-10/700 MHD-0.8/1100 MHD-3/30 MHD-3/50
Working medium Sodium Sodium Sodium Sodium Sodium-potassium alloy (78 % porassium) Sodium-potassium alloy (78 % porassium)
Working mixture flow rate Q, 3/h 20 8 700 1138 30 50
Pressure drop P,, Pa 3105 5105 10105 0,8105 3105 3105
Hydraulic pressure drop, Pa 0,016105 0,3105 0,8105 0,2105 0,4105 0,2105
Current, A 5 6,5 8 10 4 4
Valve weight, kg 190 55 310 860 60 60
Position Arbitrary Arbitrary Arbitrary Vertical Arbitrary Arbitrary
Input and output pipe dimension (diameter x wall thickness), mm 1085 463 21912 32512 702,5 702,5
Maximum temperature of liquid metal, °C 350 350 350 400 150 150


All types of valves are naturally cooled; excitation coil supply voltage is 110 V; pressure drop at the arbitrary flow rate Q<Q, is assessed by the expression = . Q/Q.

The MHD valves developed at the STC SINTEZ work in the nuclear reactors and experimental facilities at IPPE Obninsk; SRIIAR, Dimitrovgrad; SRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow; OKB FAKEL, Kaliningrad.

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